Download E-books Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period 1644-1912, Volume 2 PDF

By Arthur W. Hummel

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Contributors comprise: okay. Biggerstaff, H. Dubs, J.K. Fairbank, Fang Chao-ying, L.C.Goodrich, Hu Shih, T.Numata, E. Swisher, Teng Ssu-yu, C.M. Wilbur, H. Wilhelm. Hummel’s biographical dictionary continues to be the only fundamental reference device for chinese language heritage considering that 1644. It used to be first released in 1943–44. ‘The most sensible historical past of China of the final three hundred years’ – Hu Shih.

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He used to be expert in chinese language and Manchu, and started his profession as an Imperial Bodyguard. In 1668 he was once appointed junior vice-president of the Board of Civil Appointments. commonly, he was once against Oboi who, between different issues, had attempted in useless to frustrate the wedding of Songgotu's niece to the younger Emperor. He inspired and assisted the younger Emperor whilst the latter arrested Oboi in 1669 and took over keep an eye on of the govt.. For a few cause, he asked at the present to be relieved of his put up as vice-president of the Board of Civil Appointments, and in July 1669 the request used to be granted. months later, besides the fact that, he used to be made a Grand Secretary to fill the emptiness left through Bambursan (see lower than Oboi) who had incurred the loss of life penalty for participation in Oboi's faction. He was once at the same time made captain of a newly prepared corporation within the 3rd sub-division of the obvious Yellow Banner. In 1672, while one of many revisions of the shih-lu, or "veritable records", of Emperor Shih-tsu's reign (see below Fu-lin) used to be accomplished, Songgotu, who had served as one of many administrators of the venture, used to be rewarded with the identify of Grand train of the inheritor obvious. A 12 months later, while the fragile query of the revocation of the robust South China princedoms of Wu Sankuei, Keng Ching-chung and Shang K'o-hsi [qq. v. ] arose, he, and plenty of different courtiers, urged opposed to it. however the younger Emperor preferred those that wanted to strength the problem (see below Misl). an and Mingju), with the end result that overdue in 1673 all 3 of the above-mentioned chieftains rebelled. while information of the rebellion reached Peking, Songgotu requested the Emperor to execute these ministers who had endorsed the coverage which had triggered the struggle; yet back the Emperor flatly refused. notwithstanding, because the battle went on, Songgotu rendered many priceless prone, his earlier advocacy of conciliation was once numerous occasions held opposed to him. As uncle to the Empress, and great-uncle to the inheritor obvious (see below Yin-jeng), Songgotu grew to become sooner or later very influential. He gathered massive wealth and for a time was once the chief of a governmental clique. but he had held this splendid place at court docket for under a decade whilst opposing forces seemed opposed to him. A violent earthquake which happened in Peking on September 2, 1679 prompted a censor, Wei Hsiang-shu [q. v. ], to memorialize the throne that this phenomenon used to be a heavenly portent, caution of the corruption and misconduct of fellows in excessive locations. The ensuing decree, calling upon officers to reform, was once commonly interpreted as geared toward Songgotu. The emerging strength of Mingju [q. v. ] and his faction used to be commencing to undermine the Emperor's self belief in his minister. In 1680 Songgotu resigned from his publish as Grand Secretary, yet his impression at courtroom was once now not but totally extinguished, as a result of his place as great-uncle of the inheritor obvious. After his resignation he used to be nonetheless known as upon to serve at the council of princes and excessive officers, yet used to be numerous occasions reprimanded for haughtiness and lack of strength of will.

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